Table of Contents
East Hundred is bounded on the north by Stratton Hundred, on the east by Devonshire, on the south by the English Channel, and on the west by Lesnewth and West Hundreds. It is in three divisions, middle, northern, and southern.
CALLINGTON, or Kellington, 12 miles S. from Launceston, and 214 from London, contains 218 houses and 1321 inhabitants, including the hamlet of Frogwell. The town is situated in a flat open part of the county, and has a weekly market on Wednesday for corn and provisions, and annual fairs on the first Tuesday in March, 4th May, 19th September, and 12th November, chiefly for sheep and cattle. The town is governed by a portreve, chosen at the court leet of the Lord of the Manor, and the sessions for the middle division of the hundred are held here. The church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is a curacy to the rectory of Southill. It was built at the expence of Nicholas Assheton, sergeant at law, who died in 1465, and is buried in the chancel. In a chapel on the northern side of the chancel is a monument of Robert Lord Willoughby de Broke, who died in 1502. He acquired the manors of Callington, Bere Ferrers, &c., by his marriage with the heiress of the Champernown family, and occasionally resided at the manor house of Callington. About two miles northward from Callington is Kit hill, one of the highest in the county, 1067 feet above the level of the sea.
CALSTOCK, on the river Tamar, and borders of Devonshire, 5 miles S.W. from Tavistock, and the same distance E. from Callington, contains 441 houses and 2388 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Albeston, Chilsworthy, Harrobear, Latchley, and Metherell. The church, dedicated to St. Andrew, is a rectory, value 26l. 7s. 5d., in the patronage of the crown. In the church is a chapel built by Richard Edgecumbe in 1588, in which are monuments of Piers Edgecumbe, who died in 1666, and of Jemima Countess of Sandwich, who died in 1674. She was the widow of the brave Earl of Sandwich, K.G. who lost his life in the action with De Ruyter in 1672. The parsonage house was built about the year 1720, by Lancelot Blackbourn, Bishop of Exeter, and afterwards Archbishop of York.
Cothele, a singular ancient mansion in this parish, a seat of the Earl of Mount Edgecumbe, is beautifully situated on the western bank of the river Tamar. The manor came into possession of his family by the marriage of Hilaria, daughter and heiress of William de Cothele with William de Edgecumbe in the reign of Edward III. Carew, in his survey of Cornwall, speaking of Cothele, says, "The buildings are ancient, large, strong, and fayre, and appurtenanced with the necessaries of wood, water, fishing, park, and mills, with the devotion of a richly furnished chapel, and with the charity of alms houses for certain poor people whom the owners used to relieve." In the plan and construction of Cothele house, a remarkable instance of the suspicion and love of security is manifested, to the exclusion of outward beauty, and in some respects to the contraction of accomodation and convenience. The house had no defence beyond what the substance of its walls afforded, and this was probably sufficient. In no particular does the situation of Cothele present any advantage to recommend the choice; the ground rises with a gentle ascent from the river Tamar, about a quarter of a mile from the bank of which, it stands. The principal gate-house is on its southern front, but on the opposite side are spacious and lofty windows, with a tower rising high above every other building of the group, strong and bulky in proportion, like the border houses of the northern counties, and placed, as a commanding post, at the extreme angle. An additional interest is gained for this mansion, since its venerable aspect has not in any considerable instance been impaired. The chapel is distinguished by a handsome turret, and the hall on the western side of the court has a lofty roof arched in wood, and is adorned by ancient and curiously carved furniture, while the walls are covered with armour and warlike weapons. The tower of the southern gate-house is embattled and flanked by buildings, the entrance being by a doorway within a recessed arch, only wide enough for passengers on foot. The greater part of the architecture, says a very competent judge, is probably not older than the fifteenth century, and its style throughout is rudely bold. King George III. and Queen Charlotte, with the Princess Royal, and the Princesses Augusta and Elizabeth, visited this house on the 25th of August, 1788.
ST. IVE, four miles E. from Liskeard, and about the same distance W. from Callington, contains 110 houses and 601 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Cadson and Dinnerdake. It is a rectory, value 26l., in the patronage of the crown. Trebigh, on the banks of the Tidi, was the chief seat of the Wrey family, in the reign of Charles I; but since the match with the heiress of the Bourchiers, that family have resided at Tawstock, in Devonshire. Bichetone, Appledon, Hay, Penharget, and Slade, all ancient seats, are now farm houses. Cadsonbury, an earthwork in the neighbourhood, is of an oval form, with a single vallum, having two entrances, opposite each other, on the south-eastern and north-western sides; the area within the vallum is 700 feet by 450 feet.
ST. MELLION, or St. Mellyn, 3 miles S.E. from Callington, and 6 miles N.W. from Saltash, contains 59 houses and 321 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Bealbury, and Keason. It is a rectory, value 11l. 12s. 6d. At the east end of the north aisle of the church is a monument of William Coryton, Esq. of Newton Park, who died in 1651. He was member of parliament for Launceston, and was prosecuted in the Star Chamber for detaining the speaker Finch in his chair. Sir John Coryton, of Newton Park, was created a baronet in 1661, but the title and male line of the family became extinct in 1739. Crocadon, in this parish, was a seat of the Trevisa family, and the presumed birth place of John Trevisa, who translated the Bible, and Ralph Higden's Polychronicon. The estate was purchased of the last of the family by Sir William Coryton, Bart, about 1690, and is now the property of John Tilly Coryton, Esq. of Pentilly.
MENHINEOT, 2½ miles S.E. from Liskeard, contains 174 houses and 1170 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Merrymeet, Quarry, Tregondale, and Tregrill. Here are annual fairs on 23rd April, 11th June, and 28th July, for cattle and sheep. The church, dedicated to St. Neot, is a vicarage, value 21l.15s. 5d., in the patronage of the dean and chapter of Exeter, who must nominate a fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. It is considered one of the most valuable benefices in the county. In the chancel are monuments of the families of Carminow and Burell. The neighbourhood abounds with beautiful scenery, the numerous vallies being pleasingly diversified with rock and wood. Trencreek, in this parish, is traditionally said to have been a hunting seat of the Dukes of Cornwall, but there are no remains of ancient date. Pool, an old seat of the Trelawney family is now the parish poorhouse.
PILLATON, on the banks of the Lynher, 4 miles S. from Callington, and about 6 miles N.W. from Saltash, contains, 75 houses and 452 inhabitants, including the hamlet of Penters Cross. Here is an annual fair on Whit Tuesday. It is a rectory, value 16l.15s.7d. Pentilly castle, the seat of John Tilly Coryton, Esq., stands on an eminence, which forms an abrupt bank to the waters of the Tamar. It was built on the site of a manor house belonging to the Tilly family, and was erected from designs by Wilkins, in what is usually termed the gothic style, which it must be remarked bears no affinity to the ancient domestic architecture of this country or any other. The old houses of our nobility and gentry display a totally different form from that of the design here adopted, which is ornamented with pinnacles and other enrichments of an ecclesiastical character; really, while so many examples of detail are to be found, it is very remarkable that architects of high standing in their profession will not exert their judgment in selecting and applying appropriate decoration in their attempts to copy the ancient style, rather than resort to the church or abbey for the characteristic features of a dwelling house. The beauty of the scenery will, however, always render Pentilly castle an attractive object: the banks of the river Tamar, in this vicinity, present a vast variety of bold and picturesque forms, enveloped in dense masses of umbrageous woods, or partially shaded by scattered groups of fine trees; and when viewed from the river the scenery presents a lofty bank, adorned with a tower, in which it is said one of the former proprietors of the castle was buried, according to his own desire.
QUETHIOCK, anciently Cruetheke, 4 miles E. from Liskeard, contains 118 houses and 684 inhabitants, including the hamlet of Trehunest. It is a vicarage, value 15l. 11s., in the patronage of the Bishop of Exeter. Trehunsey, Holwood, and Leigh, ancient seats in this parish, are now farm houses.
SOUTHILL, 3 miles N.W. from Callington, contains 91 houses and 534 inhabitants. It is a rectory, value 38l., in the patronage of Lord Clinton. The great manor or franchise of Calliland is of very extensive jurisdiction and formerly belonged to the baronial family of Stafford; but is now chiefly the property of Lord Clinton. Manaton, an ancient seat, is dilapidated.
EGLOSKERRY, 4 miles N.W. from Launceston, contains 82 houses and 436 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Badharlick, Trebeath, and Tregeare. The church, dedicated to St. Kyriac, is a curacy, in the presentation of the crown. In the chancel are monuments of the Speccot family of Penhele. Tregeare and Treludick are ancient seats in this parish.
LANEAST, 7 miles W. from Launceston, contains 39 houses and 229 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Badgall and Trespearn. The parish church formerly belonged to the Priors of Launceston: it is a curacy, in the presentation of the crown.
LAUNCESTON, anciently Dunheved, on the river Attery, a branch of the Tamar, and borders of Devonshire, 214 miles from London, contains 245 houses and 2183 inhabitants, exclusive of that part of the borough which extends into Lawhitton parish, and of the borough of Newport, and parish of St. Stephen. Launceston is one of the principal towns in the county, and is situated in the midst of a highly cultivated and well wooded district. The castle is supposed to be of early British construction, but was in ruins after the reign of Edward III. Part of the wall that surrounded the town and two gate houses still remain, one on the eastern or Exeter road, and one on the southern or Callington road. The houses in the town are well built; it contains a manufactory of serges; and here is a free school, founded by Queen Elizabeth, and endowed with a sum payable out of the Duchy of Cornwall. There is also an income, arising from certain estates which had belonged to the hospital of St. Leonard, near Poulston bridge, vested in the corporation, and applied to charitable uses. The market here is held by prescription on Thursday and Saturday; the former is the principal market, and is well supplied with corn and provisions of all sorts, the other is only for butchers' meat. There are annual fairs on Whit Monday, 5th July, 8th November, and 11th December, for bullocks, and on the first Thursday in March, and the third Thursday in April, for cattle of all sorts, free of toll. The assizes for the county were formerly held wholly at Launceston, but in consequence of an act of parliament in 1715, they were held alternately at this town and Bodmin, an arrangement which now exists; the spring assizes being held at Launceston, and the summer assizes at Bodmin.
The town was incorporated by Queen Mary in 1555, and is governed by a mayor, eight aldermen, and a recorder. The arms of the town are gules, a triple circular tower or, within a border azure, charged with eight towers domed argent; crest, on a ducal coronet or, a lion's head gules, between two ostrich feathers argent.
The borough returns one member to parliament, according to the Reform Bill of 1832, who at present is the Right Hon. Major-general Sir Henry Hardinge, K.C.B.
St Mary Magdalen
The church, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, is a curacy, in the presentation of the King, as duke of Cornwall. In point of architecture the parish church is one of the most remarkable buildings in the county; it is built of granite, and covered with a profusion of enrichment. On the southern side is a large porch, having figures of St. George and St. Martin, in bas relief, on the front. Round the base of the whole building is a succession of shields, in compartments, each of which is charged with a letter, the whole forming this inscription, beginning from a small door on the south side:—
Ave Maria gracie plena Dominus tecum sponsas,
aenat sponsam Maria optimam partem elegit,
o quam terribilis ac metuendus est locus iste, bere
aliud non est hic, nisi domus Dei et porta celi.
In the chancel are monuments of the families of Lawrence, Pyper, and Vyvyan of Tresmarrow a younger branch of the Trelowarren family. On the northern side of the church is a promenade, sheltered by an avenue of trees, which commands an extensive and beautiful prospect of the distant country.
Launceston castle, undoubtedly of very early origin, has attracted the attention of antiquaries, by the singularity of its construction. The late Edward King, in his "Munimenta Antiqua," calls it a work of the Britons, or rather of the Phoenicians, being built upon the plan of castles in Asia Minor. He concludes it was the residence of Vortigern, both before and after his advancement to the British throne, and says that, upon his retreat into Wales, he built another upon the same model. Robert Earl of Mortaign, in Normandy, half brother to William the Conqueror, accompanying that monarch into England, was rewarded for his services by a grant of no less than seven hundred and ninety-three manors, and the earldom of Cornwall. His son William, the second earl of Cornwall, after the conquest, is said to have enlarged and strengthened the works of this castle, when the keep on a very lofty and remarkable mount obtained it the name of Castle Terrible. The keep or citadel of the castle is one of the most curious buildings of the kind in the kingdom; it consists of a round tower, thirty-six feet in diameter, and about thirty-eight feet in height; standing on a steep conical rocky mount, and surrounded by a wall, twelve feet thick, and twenty feet high, the inner part of which is much decayed on the eastern side. The form of the outer wall approaches to an oval in the plan, the external dimensions of which are seventy-eight feet by seventy feet. The space between this wall and the inner tower varies in width from six to ten feet, and there was formerly a steep flight of steps between two walls leading up to the southern side of the mount to the entrance into the tower on the top.
Of the precise date of this remarkable edifice nothing is known. The castle was certainly in existence at the time of the Norman conquest, and most probably long before. As it exhibits no trace of Anglo Saxon ornament, it is admitted that there is some reason for the opinion that it is a British work. One proof of its great age is the state of decay in which it appears to have been in the early part of the fourteenth century, according to a survey of that period, the particulars of which are given by Mr. Lysons, in the History of Cornwall. What has been said by some historians of the castle having been erected by William of Mortaign, Earl of Cornwall, must apply to the buildings of the base court, of which little now remains excepting the gate-house, a small tower, and part of the outer walls. The walls enclose a considerable extent of ground, and prove the castle to have been once a strong and important fortress. It was garissoned for the King in the reign of Charles I. and became one of the last supports of the royal cause in this part of the kingdom. The lodgings of the constable of the castle are now the county gaol, but the office of constable, together with that of high steward of the town, is now held by his grace the Duke of Northumberland, K. G. who has a seat at Werrington, in Devonshire, in the immediate neighbourhood.
St Stephen by Launceston and St Thomas by Launceston
Adjoining to the town of Launceston, of which they appear to form a part, are the parishes of St. Stephen and St. Thomas. St. Stephen, with the borough of Newport, contains 173 houses and 977 inhabitants. The parish of St. Thomas the Apostle, with the hamlet of St. Thomas Street, sometimes deemed extra parochial, contains 94 houses and 608 inhabitants. The church of St. Stephen was formerly collegiate, but it was suppressed by Bishop Warelwast, then resident at Lawhitton, who in its stead founded a Priory, of the order of St. Augustine, in the parish of St. Thomas, about half-way between St. Stephen's and the castle. At the dissolution, its revenue amounted to 354l. per annum. The conventual buildings have been wholly destroyed. The parish church of St. Stephen was rebuilt at the expence of Charles Cheyney, Viscount Newhaven, formerly one of the members of parliament for Newport, as appears from an inscription upon the building. There are annual fairs in this parish on 12th May, 31st July, and 25th September, for cattle and sheep. The manor of Newport, which belonged to the Morice family, is now the property of the Duke of Northumberland. The manor of New house was formerly a seat of the Langford family.
The church of St. Thomas is a curacy, in the presentation of the King, as Duke of Cornwall. Tredidon was an ancient seat of a family of that name, from whom it descended to the families of Windsor and Joliffe. It was purchased in 1805 by George Francis Collins Browne, Esq. In this parish is an ancient fortification, called Castle Wood.
LAWHITTON, on the borders of Devonshire, 2 miles S.E. from Launceston, and 10 miles N.W. from Tavistock, contains 70 houses and 435 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Carsantec, Luccombe, and Tregeda. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is a rectory, value 19l. 6s. 8d., in the patronage of the Bishop of Exeter. In the chancel is a monument of Richard Bennet of Hexworthy, ob. 1619, and another of Richard Coffin, the last heir male of the Bennet family, who took the name of Coffin, from his mother, the heiress of the Coffins of Portlege. Sheers Barton, in this parish, belongs to the see of Exeter, as well as the manor of Lawhitton.
LEWANNICK, on the banks of the river Inny, 5 miles S.W. from Launceston, contains 101 houses and 623 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Hick's Mill, Pollyfont, Trenhorne, and Trevadlock. The church, dedicated to St. Martin, is a vicarage, value 7l. 18s. 9d., in the patronage of the crown.
LEZANT, 3½ miles S. from Launceston, contains 152 houses and 853 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Larrick, Rosane, Trebollet, Treburley, and Trewarlet. It is a rectory, value 32l., in the patronage of the Bishop of Exeter. In the chancel of the parish church is a monument of the family of Trefusis of Landew. King Charles I. upon his entrance into Cornwall, on the 1st August, 1644, slept at Trecarrell, then the seat of — Manaton, Esq. It afterwards belonged to the Wortley family. The old hall and chapel are still remaining. The parish of Lezant is separated from Devonshire by the Tamar, the banks of which, skirted by the Catter Mather rocks, clothed with coppice, are here highly picturesque ; the southern side of the parish is bounded by the little river Inny, which falls into the Tamar at Innysfoot.
LINKINHORNE, 7 miles S. from Launceston, contains 182 houses and 1080 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Rilla Mill, Rillaton, and Upton. The church, dedicated to St. Meliora, is a vicarage, value 13l. It formerly belonged to the priory of Launceston. At Carnadon, in this parish, commonly called Carraton downs, is some of the highest ground in the county, being 1208 feet above the level of the sea. It was on these downs that King Charles I. drew up his forces on the 2nd August, 1644, the day after he had entered Cornwall, and here he was joined by Prince Maurice. The remarkable stones called the Cheesewring and Hurlers are in this parish. The former on Stows, a hill on the common of Rillaton; it is a large mass of granite rock, thirty-two feet high, consisting of several layers, of large dimensions, poised on others so small as to excite surprise that it should have stood for so many ages. The Hurlers are on the common of Carnadon Prior, and originally consisted of three circles of upright stones, from which many have been carried away. Sharp Tor, from which there is a remarkably fine view, is also in this parish.
NORTHILL, 7 miles S.W. from Launceston, contains 153 houses and 1089 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Trebartha, Treveniel, and Illand. The church, dedicated to St. Torney, is a rectory, value 36l. 6s. 8d. In the chancel are monuments of the families of Spoure, of Landreyne, and Darley, of Tremolla. One of the most extensive views in the county is from Henborough down, between this village and St. Cleer.
SOUTH PETHERWIN, 2 miles S.W. from Launceston, contains 143 houses and 914 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Trecroogo, Tregaller, and Trethevy. Here are two annual fairs, on the second Tuesday in May, and the second Tuesday in October. The church, dedicated to St. Paternus, is a vicarage, value 9l. 2s. 6d., in the patronage of the University of Oxford. In the chancel are monuments of the families of Manaton of Trecarrel, Walton of Tremeal, and of Couch and Morgan of Trevozah. Trebursey is a modern mansion, erected by the Hon. William Eliot, formerly colonel of the Cornwall militia.
STOKE CLIMSLAND, 3 miles N. from Callington, contains 213 houses, and 1524 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Burraton, Drawcombe, Lidwell, Luckett, Polhilsa, Tutwell, Underhill, and Venterdon. It is a rectory, value 40l., in the patronage of the crown. Whiteford house is the seat of Sir William Pratt Call, Bart., a title created 21st June, 1791. The mansion stands in a beautiful and luxuriant valley, with a stream meandering in front. The greater part of Hengiston down is in this parish.
TREMAYNE, or Tremean, 7 miles N.W. from Launceston, contains 20 houses and 125 inhabitants, including the hamlet of Trusel. It is a curacy, in the presentation of the crown. The church was consecrated in 1481 by the name of the chapel of Winwolaus. Castle Milford, an ancient seat of the Treise family, is now a farm house.
TRESMEER, on the river Attery, 6 miles N.W. from Launceston, contains 33 houses and 173 inhabitants, including the hamlet of Treburtte. The church, dedicated to St. Nicholas, is a curacy, in the presentation of the crown. The parish is within the boundary of the Duke of Northumberland's manor of Werrington, in Devonshire.
TREWEN, 5½ miles W. from Launceston, contains 31 houses and 206 inhabitants, including the hamlet of Trenalt. There are two annual fairs, on 1st May and 10th October, for colts, sheep, and lambs. It is a curacy, in the presentation of the University of Oxford. In the church is a monument for one of the Menwenick family, who died in the reign of Elizabeth.
ANTHONY, ST. JACOB, on the river Lynher, near the mouth of the Tamar, and borders of Devonshire, 2 miles W. from Devonport, contains 56 houses and 330 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Torpoint, Wilcove, and Tregantle. It is a vicarage, value 12l. 17s. 8d. In the chancel are several monuments, worthy of note; one is an intagliated brass plate, the figure of a lady, under an enriched canopy, in memory of Margery Arundell, who died in the year 1420. The manor descended by an heiress, from the family of Dawney, to that of Archdekne, the last of which, Sir Warine Archdekne, left three daughters, one of which, Margery, married Sir Thomas Arundell, of Talverne, and died possessed of this estate in 1420, leaving no issue. It then passed to her sister Phillippa, wife of Sir Hugh Courtenay, who left a daughter, and sole heiress, Joan. The manor devolved to the descendant of Alexander, her fourth son, by her husband Sir Nicholas Carew, of Haccombe, and ancestor of Richard Carew, the Historian, of this county. Sir Richard Carew, his eldest son, was created baronet in 1641, but the title became extinct in 1799. In the north aisle of the parish church is a tablet, in memory of Richard Carew, author of "The Survey of Cornwall," who died in 1620. There are other monuments of the Carew family; and in the south aisle is a monument, by Wilton, for Admiral Thomas Graves, of Thanks, ancestor of Lord Graves.
Anthony House, the seat of Reginald Pole Carew, Esq. was rebuilt in 1721 by Sir William Carew, of Pentuan stone; the apartments contain family portraits, by Holbien, Vandyck, Sir Godfrey Kneller, Hudson, and Sir Joshua Reynolds. Amongst them is the portrait of the author of "The Survey of Cornwall," engraved for Lord de Dunstanvile's edition of that book. At Torpoint is a seat of Joshua Rowe, Esq. The chapel here was founded in 1816. Thanks, near Gravesend, on the banks of Hamoaze, is a seat of Lord Graves. It was erected in 1713, and the apartments contain some family portraits, and a portrait of the first Earl of Camden; there are also several large pictures of the naval victory on the 1st June, 1794, when Admiral Graves commanded the Royal Sovereign. The gardens are sheltered from the north by a plantation of Norway firs, under the shade of which, a walk about a mile in length, over uneven grounds, presents fine views of Hamoaze. The grounds of Anthony House are situated on the northern side of the peninsula, between St. John's Lake and the estuary of the Lynher, which washes the wooded cliffs that form the boundary of the domain. The road to Anthony Passage, is through the grounds, and the ferry over the Lynher, to Trematon, Saltash, &c. belongs to the lord of the manor.
BOTUS FLEMING, or Blo Fleming, on a branch of the Tamar, 3 miles N.W. from Saltash, contains 48 houses and 297 inhabitants. It is a rectory, value 16l. 15s. 7d. Hatt, an ancient mansion in this parish, was formerly a residence of the Symons family, and descended by an heiress in 1802 to the Rev. Charles Tucker.
Moditonham House, the seat of Charles Carpenter, Esq. was rebuilt in 1760, of lime stone, with which the estate abounds; it is remarkable for the polish it is capable of receiving. The Tamar which separates this county from Devonshire, forms a conspicuous object in all the views from the grounds, which are disposed with taste, and the gardens abound with all sorts of the finest fruit. Modeton, as the name was anciently written, is the only manor in the parish, and was held in very early times by Philip de Valletort, under the Earl of Cornwall. It was afterwards possessed by the Dawney family, from which it passed to the Courtenays, and at a later period, was held by the Waddon family. In the year 1689, John Granville, Earl of Bath, and Governor of Plymouth, held a meeting at this house, then the seat of John Waddon, Esq., with the commissioners of the Prince of Orange, about the surrender of Pendennis and Plymouth Castles, which were in consequence of a treaty delivered up.
ST. GERMANS, on the river Tidi, 8 miles W. from Saltash, and 9½ miles W. from Devonport in Devonshire, contains 438 houses and 2404 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Bake, Catchfrench, Cosdrinnick, Cuddenbeck, Cutcrew, Hendra, Hessingford, Molineck, Polemartin, Treskelly, and Tidiford. The town is situated on the ascent of a hill, with the houses disposed in one street, and from the nature of the ground, they are nearly parallel with the roof of the church. It takes its name from St. German, Bishop of Auxerre, who is said to have resided here during his visit to England. St. Germans was an ancient episcopal see to which Bishop Athelstan was appointed in the year 910; but Livingus, Bishop of Crediton, procured it to be annexed to his own see, about 1040. The market has been long discontinued, but there are annual fairs on the 28th May and 1st August, for cattle. A portreve is elected annually at the lord's court leet, there are also forty censors, and the sessions for the southern division of the hundred are held here. The church, dedicated to St. German, is a curacy, in the presentation of the dean and canons of Windsor. It was formerly collegiate, and the yearly revenue of the priory was valued at 243l. 8s. The estates were granted, in 1541, to Katharine, widow of John Champernown, to John Ridgeway, and Walter Smith. The church retains considerable traces of Anglo-Saxon architecture, although it has undergone many alterations. The western front shows more of the original style than any other part of the building. It has two towers, of different dimensions; that on the southern side is square, and the upper part of it evidently of a much later date. The northern tower is much the largest, and is square at its base, the upper part being octagonal: between these towers, is a very noble western doorway, having a deeply recessed semicircular arch, enriched with a variety of Anglo-Saxon mouldings, terminated by a gable. In the octagonal tower, and over the doorway, are several small round-headed windows. The southern side of the church is said to have been rebuilt in the year 1261. In the chancel are some monuments of the Eliot family, amongst which, is one by Rysbrach, in memory of William Eliot, Esq., who died in 1723. He founded and endowed a parochial library. There is a monument also for John Glanville, Esq. of Catchfrench.
Port Eliot, the seat of the Earl of St. Germans, is very near the church; the apartments contain portraits by Rembrandt, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Opie, &c., amongst those by the President of the Royal Academy, is one of his earliest groups, painted in 1746. Edward Eliot of Port Eliot, was created Lord Eliot of St. Germans, 30th January, 1784; his descendant, William Lord Eliot, was created Earl of St. Germans, 30th September, 1815.
Cuddenbeck, formerly a country seat of the Bishop of Exeter, was afterwards a jointure house of the Eliot family, and in 1793, was occupied by the widow of Daniel Eliot, Esq. It is now a farm house, but retains some vestiges of its ancient consequence.
Bake is a seat of Sir Joseph Copley, Bart. It formerly belonged to the Moyle family, and was the residence of Thomas Moyle, speaker of the House of Commons, in the reign of Henry VIII. Walter Moyle, of Bake, M.P. for Saltash, died in 1721. His life and writings were published in 1727, by Anthony Hammond, to which was prefixed his portrait, engraved by Vertue, from the original at this seat. Coldrinnick is an ancient seat of the Trelawney family ; and Catchfrench, the seat of F. Glanville, Esq., is built on an eminence.
The river Tidi, which rises on the southern side of Carraton Hill, near Liskeard, enters the parish of St. Germans, near Molineck, an ancient seat of the Scawen family, and becomes navigable at Tidiford, two miles above the town. After being joined by the Lynher, the river falls into the Tamar.
ST. JOHN, on an inlet of the Tamar, 3½ miles W. from Devonport, in Devonshire, contains 34 houses and 178 inhabitants, including the hamlet of Tregenhawke. It is a rectory, value 12l. 12s. 6d., in the patronage of the crown: in the church are monuments of the family of Fisher of Trevorder. On Wolsdon Hill, between the village and Anthony, is a seat built by Mr. Deeble, which descended to Mr. Boger by an heiress.
Landrake and St Erney
LANDRAKE, on the river Lynher, 4 miles N.W. from Saltash, contains 159 houses and 841 inhabitants, including the hamlet of Wotton Cross, the chapelry of St. Erney, and the hamlet of Markwell. There are annual fairs on 19th July and 24th August, for cattle. The church, dedicated to St. Peter, is a vicarage, value 18l. 12s. 4d. In the chancel is an intagliated brass plate, in memory of Edward Courtenay, obit. 1509, and in the south aisle is a monument of Nicholas Wylls, obit. 1607.
LANDULPH, on the river Tamar, 2 miles N. from Saltash, and by water about 5 miles from Devonport, in Devonshire, contains 121 houses and 579 inhabitants, including the hamlet of Cargreen. The church, dedicated to St. Dilpe, is a rectory, value 20l. 3s. 6d., in the patronage of the crown. In the church is a small brass tablet, fixed against the wall, with the following inscription:—
"Here lyeth the body of Theodoro Paleologus, of Pesaro, in Italye, descended from ye Imperyal lyne of ye last Christian emperors of Greece, being the sonne of Theodoro, the sonne of John, the sonne of Thomas, second brother of Constantine Paleologus, the 8th of that name, and last of the lyne yt rayned in Constantinople, until subdued by the Turks, who married wt Mary, ye daughter of William Balls of Hadlye in Souffolke, Gent. and had issue five children: Theodoro, John, Ferdinando, Maria, and Dorothy, and departed this lyfe, at Clyfton, ye 21st of January, 1636."
Above the inscription, are the Imperial arms of Greece—an eagle displayed with two heads, the legs resting upon two gates, and between the gates, a crescent for difference, as second son. Over the whole is the Imperial crown.
Clifton, in the parish of Landulph, was a seat of the Arundell family, but in 1630 was the residence of Sir Nicholas Lower. It has been supposed that Theodoro Paleologus came into England with Sir Thomas Arundell, after the battles in Hungary, and was induced to prefer Landulph for his residence, as from its vicinity to the sea, and the warmth of climate, it more nearly resembled Pesaro than any other place in the kingdom.
Dorothy, his daughter, married, in 1656, William, grandson of Alexander Arundell, of Clifton. This ancient seat stands at the northern extremity of the parish, close to the river Tamar. The situation is singularly beautiful, commanding above, the different windings of this justly celebrated river, in its most picturesque points of Pentilly Castle, Halton, and Cothele; and below, the woods of Warleigh and Tamerton, Saltash and Hamoaze, terminated by Mount Edgecumbe and Maker Heights. The house lies very low, just on the edge of the water, and is now inhabited by a farmer renting the Barton; enough of it remains to prove it was once a mansion of considerable respectability. The hall, carrying its massive framed roof the whole height of the house, and still retaining its gallery and raised step in the floor for the high table: the remains of a building, called the tower, and the extent of the outbuildings bespeak its former consequence. It is the property of the Rev. Francis Vyvyan Jago, rector of the parish, from whose very interesting communication to the Society of Antiquaries, in 1815, the account is taken.
MAKER, partly in the county of Devonshire, 5½ miles S. from Saltash, and 2½ miles W. from Devonport, contains 301 houses and 1796 inhabitants, including Inceworth and Millbrook. Here are annual fairs on the 1st May and 29th September, for cattle. The church, dedicated to St. Macra, is a vicarage, value 23l. 11s., in the patronage of the crown. On Maker heights, a number of redoubts mounted with heavy ordnance, command Cawsand Bay, Millbrook Lake, and the adjacent country, and are garrisoned with troops from the regiments at Plymouth, as occasion requires. Mount Edgecumbe, partly in this parish, is chiefly in Devonshire.
RAME, on the sea coast, the south-eastern extremity of the county, 4 miles S.W. from Devonport, in Devonshire, contains 137 houses and 807 inhabitants, including the hamlet of Cawsand. The church, dedicated to St. German, is a rectory, value 12l. 7s. 6d., in the patronage of the Earl of Mount Edgecumbe. Rame Place is the seat of Thomas Edwards, Esq. Rame Head, one of the most prominent on the southern coast, is the nearest point of land to the Eddystone lighthouse. On the promontory was formerly a chapel, dedicated to St. Michael, of which there are some remains. Cawsand Bay is formed by part of this parish, it extends from Redding Point to Penlee Point, on the eastern shores of Plymouth Sound. On Penlee Point is an obelisk, which forms a conspicuous sea mark.
SHEVIOCK, 2 miles S. from St. Germans, and 7 miles W. from Devonport, contains 70 houses and 491 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Crafthole and Wrinkle Cove, or Portwrinkle. The church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is a rectory, value 26l. 14s. 7d.; in the chancel are monuments of the Dawney family, by whom it was founded; one, in the south transept, is that of Sir Edward Courtenay, who married Emmeline, the heiress of Dawney, in the reign of Edward III., with their effigies ; there are several shields upon the monument, but the arms are obliterated: under one of the windows of the northern aisle, is the figure of a knight, with a lion at his feet, carved in stone, of about the same date.
At Crafthole, which is situated on an eminence near the coast, are annual fairs, on Lady-day for cattle, and on Easter Tuesday for toys, &c. Southward of Crafthole is the channel and Whitsand Bay.
SALTASH, on the river Tamar, 4½ miles N.W. from Plymouth, in Devonshire, contains 211 houses and 1548 inhabitants. The town was formerly called Ashburgh, and is built on a steep ascent, upon the banks of the river: it was made a free borough by Reginald de Valletort, in the reign of Henry III., but a new charter was procured in 1774, under which the corporation consists of a mayor, aldermen, and an indefinite number of burgesses. The seal of the borough bears a shield, charged with the arms of Richard Earl of Cornwall, a lion rampant, within a border bezanty, surmounted by a coronet, and having at the base, water; on each side of the shield is an ostrich feather, labelled. There is a weekly market on Saturday, and annual fairs on the Tuesday before each quarter-day, on 2d February, and on 25th July, for cattle and sheep. The chapel is dedicated to St. Nicholas, and is in the presentation of the mayor.
The manor of Asshe Torre, the site of which is a rock, at the bottom of the town, abutting on the water, was held under the honor of Trematon, and has jurisdiction extending into Devonshire.
St Stephen by Saltash
The town of Saltash is within the parish of St. Stephen, which, exclusive of the borough, contains 236 houses and 1325 inhabitants, including the hamlets of Buraton, Carkeel, and Trematon; the entire parish contains 2873 inhabitants. The honor of Trematon was held under Robert Earl of Mortaign and Cornwall, by Reginald de Valletort, whose descendant, Roger de Valletort, the last heir male of the family, granted it to Richard Earl of Cornwall, and King of the Romans. In the time of Edward the Black Prince, the estate was annexed to the Duchy of Cornwall, and he is supposed to have occasionally resided at Trematon Castle, which was built by Robert Earl of Mortaign and Cornwall, and stands in a beautiful situation on the banks of the Lynher. There are at present considerable remains of the old castle; a survey of the Duchy, dated 1337, describes a hall, with a kitchen and lodging chamber, as built by Edward Earl of Cornwall, and mentions an ancient chapel within the gatehouse of the castle. There is no account of this castle having been occupied by either party during the civil war in the seventeenth century; but a survey made by order of parliament, in 1650, after stating that lands were held, under the honor of Trematon, by the service of the tenants, repairing every one his part of the castle, adds, that it was so much out of repair, that there was scarcely any thing but the walls left on the southern side, that there was on that side an old house, in which the keeper dwelt, and kept prisoners that were arrested within the honor. On the south-eastern side was a barn, which had been a chapel, and near it a gatehouse with several rooms. A house was afterwards erected within the base court, by Benjamin Tucker, Esq. surveyor-general of the Duchy of Cornwall. Viscount Trematon was one of the titles conferred upon William Duke of Cumberland, in 1726. St. Stephen's church is a vicarage, united with the chapel of Saltash, valued at 26l., in the patronage of the dean and chapter of Windsor, to whom it was granted by Edward the Black Prince. Stoketon House, built about 1770, is the seat of Admiral De Courcy, and commands many interesting points of view in the adjacent county. Nottar Bridge, in this parish, crosses the river Lynher in a singularly romantic and beautiful valley, about three miles from Saltash, in the road to St. Germans. The scenery here consists of bold and lofty crags, slightly covered with heath and shrubbery of natural growth. The river Lynher, after receiving the water of the Tidi, continues a winding course between Sheviock and St. Stephens, to the promontory of Erth, where it spreads into a wide lake, and falls into the Tamar, about a mile below the borough of Saltash. Near its confluence with the Tamar, on the northern bank of the Lynher, is Weard House, the seat of Henry Harrison, Esq., commanding an uninterrupted prospect of both rivers, the scenery of which is said to include the greatest variety of interesting combinations that can be found in England.